The programming process of construction activities is an ongoing process, involves organization, planning, control and reorganization. It incorporates all the resources required and the stipulated time for completion of activities. The plan involves planning activities and resources, you decide what you want to achieve and most importantly how you will achieve. It is a process expected results and anticipation of the future. In the Control compares what has been achieved against what was planned and then look back and learn from previous experience. Reorganization is the re-orientation requirements according to what is in the process control. There are various programming techniques such as the graphs of cumulative progress curves known as S or bar graph.
The S curve is a graphical representation used in project management typically as a curved structure to show the behavior of the cumulative costs, hours worked or other amounts against time, the S-curve tends to have such shape because costs and hours per worker are lower in the early stages to the planning stage, then increases during the stages of execution and control and eventually ends up slowly during the final stage. The S curve is an indicator that can be used for various parameters such as objectives, baseline, costs, time, both projected and real data in order to compare the actual progress with the planned for the project.
Bar charts are another way of representing the work plan, but these operations are classified and assigned a specific time, for example the excavation will take six days, the application of the reinforcements 45, and the application of concrete 40 more, these days are shown in a diagram where the bars represent the time it takes each activity.
Before any activity starts, you must make a plan and a resource plan. The business plan (or program progress) samples activities have been completed, such as the volume of trenching, the length of the pipe deployed and built channel length, depending on which details needed. The resource plan shows hours / person, hours / machine and money spent. Plans activities and resources cannot be made without knowing the performance of the team and the work they will play in the project.
The following is a short description of the different types of equipment that can be deployed for the construction of an irrigation project and uses that they have:
- Bulldozer (Bulldozer, excavator or dozer):
It is used to carry out work such as cleaning brush (and other types of plant material), ground movements over short distances, cut thin layers of soil during land leveling, leveling micro-topography, make drainage and walls flood.
- Scrapers (Scrapers):
It consists of a frame or chassis carrying a box or container transport (more than 30 cubic meters of volume) and must be towed. The scraper cuts the soil with a sharp blade at the front bottom of the box, the floor is stored in said casing and can be released in a required location. They are ideal for transporting soil by great distances, for example during leveling work to build embankments (seats) channels.
- Grader (Grader):
It is a machine with a blade located approximately half of its body. It is used to build drains, roads and to carry out land leveling operations more accurately than they can make the scraper. Bulldozers can be motorized or be powered by a tractor. The latter type are much slower in carrying out their work and, depending on the work, it requires a powerful tractor to enhance these machines.
- Dragline (Dragline):
They are formed by a cockpit translation system, a pen of great length, in order of 60 meters equipment.
The draglines are used for excavation, drilling and extraction and cleaning of canals.
- Excavator, Backhoe or Excavator Shovel (Excavator):
It is a machine with a hydraulically operated shovel. Type usually used caterpillar wheels for ease in muddy terrain. You can take the same work that the dragline, although its scope is definitely lower, generally less than 10 meters. It is frequently used for excavation of canals and pipelines to load trucks ground (Tippers).
- Land plane:
They consist of a body with certain length wheels, along with a blade that is installed on the upper front end is used for leveling and can be as accurate as 2 or 3 centimeters.
- Backhoe Loaders (Backhoe Loaders):
It is similar to the tractor with a front loader and a rear and a rear machine. It is used for excavations of canals and ditches for pipes for loading floors etc.
- Truck (Truck or Lorry):
Used to transport materials and equipment to the project site.
It consists of a large trailer, flat, usually pushed by a heavier vehicle and is used to transport large machinery such as Scrapers, Bulldozers and graders over long distances, up to the project sites.
- Towing Truck:
To transport materials and equipment to, from or within the working area of the project.
It is a small vehicle with a container on the front. Dump capacity ranges from 300 to 1300 liters. It is used to transport materials, such as concrete, at the project site.
- Concrete mixer (Concrete Mixer):
Has a cylinder or drum driven by a motor and is used to mix concrete. The blades inside the drum Cuba or facilitate the mixing of concrete. Some mixers have a weighing equipment for mixing concrete by mass, rather than by volume. The size of the concrete mixer or mixers can range from as small as 35 liters to others that exceed 100 liters per mix.
- Poker or Concrete Vibrator (Vibrators Concrete):
It is a device that moves mechanically and is used to compact concrete by vibration.
- Tipper Dump Truck or tractor or truck:
Used to transport materials and equipment to the project site are preferred to transport soil, sand and coarse aggregates, such as the back of the tract truck can be raised hydraulically, can be easily transported materials vacating.
- Tank (Bowser):
The tanks have various capacities and are usually mounted on wheels.
- Steamroller Steamroller or Roller / Compactor:
It consists of a heavy cylinder, which moves either mechanically or manually. It is used to compact soil. A steamroller is also used to compact the soil using a vibrating plate.